Scientific Literature



Dental implants are commonly used in daily practice, however most surgeons do not really know the characteristics of these biomedical devices they are placing in their patients. The objective of this work is to describe the chemical and morphological characteristics of 14 implant surfaces available on the market, and to establish a simple and clear identification (ID) card for all of them, following the classification procedure developed in the Dohan Ehrenfest et al. (2010) Codification (DEC) system.


Fourteen different implant surfaces were characterized:

1. TiUnite,

2. Ospol,

3. Kohno,

4. Osseospeed,

5. Ankylos,

6. MTX,

7. Promote,

8. BTI Interna,

9. EVL,

10. Twinkon,

11. Ossean,

12. NanoTite,

13. SLActive,

14. Integra-CP.


Superficial chemical composition was analyzed using XPS/ESCA and the 100nm in-depth profile was established using AES. The microtopography was quantified using light interferometry (IFM). The general morphology and the nanotopography were evaluated using a FESEM. Finally, the characterization code of each surface was established using the DEC, and the main characteristics of each surface were summarized in a reader-friendly ID card. Results: FROM A CHEMICAL STANDPOINT, in the 14 different surfaces, 10 were based on a commercially pure titanium (grade 2 or 4), 3 on a titanium-aluminium alloy (grade 5 titanium), and the last one on a calcium phosphate core.


9 surfaces presented different forms of chemical impregnation or discontinuous coating of the titanium core, and 3 surfaces were covered with residual alumina blasting particles. 12 surfaces presented different degrees of inorganic pollutions, and 2 presented a severe organic pollution overcoat. Only 2 surfaces presented no pollution (Osseospeed and Ossean). FROM A MORPHOLOGICAL STANDPOINT, 2 surfaces were microporous (anodization) and 12 microrough, with different microtopographical aspects and values.


10 surfaces were smooth on the nanoscale, and therefore presented no significant and repetitive nanostructures. 4 implants were nanomodified: 2 implants were nanorough (Osseospeed and Ossean), and 2 were covered with nanoparticles (NanoTite and SLActive). TiUnite and Kohno HRPS were covered with extended cracks all over the surface. Only 8 surfaces could be considered as homogeneous.This systematic approach allowed to gather the main characteristics of these commercially available products in a single ID card.

Identification card and codification of the chemical and morphological characteristics of 14 dental implant surfaces.



Journal of Oral Implantology: October 2011, Vol. 37, No. 5, pp. 525-542. doi:


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